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Shenandoah Valley Civil War Sites
BACKGROUND: Starting in 1926 the Commonwealth of Virginia initiated a program of installing highway markers to designate points of interest for travellers to the Old Dominion. Included are numerous markers designating Civil War battles, individuals, as well as other points of interest regarding the War Between the States. With over 60% of all Civil War battles taking place here, Virginia had little difficulty installing road markers for those interested in taking the time to pull over their cars, get out, read the markers and perhaps ponder a few moments of what they have just read and what it meant.
As a service to those of similar interest, we have created a complete list of all markers currently present in Virginia (as well as those now lost to the ages) that we are aware of that were erected by the Commonwealth of Virginia. If you know of any we may be missing, please contact us.
In addition, we hope to compile a list of other Civil War points of interests within Virginia that will include other Civil War sites, cemeteries, museums, etc., along with the addresses, telephone numbers and person to contact. We ask your assistance if you are aware of worthy Civil War points of interest to include here. Please contact us.
We have broken down these markers into four sections of the state
1) Shenandoah Valley and (south)western part of the state
2) Northern Virginia
3) Central Virginia, including Richmond and the Piedmont region
4) Tidewater Virginia, including southeast and southcentral Virginia.
Originally, all landmarkers were assigned a letter of the alphabet and a number; the letter designating the highway (early part of the century roads were given letters not route numbers). Today, many markers are no longer in existence and if we are aware, we will notify you of such. (DESIGNATED by the abbreviation N/A and printed in blue). However, just because the marker is no longer present, remember that history still abounds at these sites (if not developed) and you may have the opportunity to stop at places the general public is no longer aware of anymore. All locations are approximate since many car odometers will vary in calibration. Whereever possible, the markers are not being presented in numerical order but by their proximity to their location to others on the same highway. This should assist you to locate the markers on the road you will be currently travelling.
In addition, we found the following book compiled by for the Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission titled, "A Guidebook to Virginia's Historical Markers," ISBN 0-8139-1047-1, and ISBN 0-8139-1491-4 1994 update to be of immense help in creating this website. If anyone finds any errors or missing markers, etc., please contact us.
Thank you for visiting our website and please E-mail us your comments.
1) City of Winchester
2) Frederick County
3) Shenandoah County
4) Clarke County
5) Warren County
6) Rockingham County
7) City of Harrisonburg
8) Page County
9) Augusta County
10) City of Staunton
11) Nelson County
12) Highland County
13) Bath County
14) Rockbridge County
15) City of Lexington
16) Amherst County
17) Alleghany County
18) City of Covington
19) Botetourt County
20) City of Lynchburg
21) Bedford County
22) Craig County
23) Roanoke County
24) City of Roanoke
25) City of Salem
26) Giles County
27) Montgomery County
28) City of Radford
29) Floyd County
30) Pulaski County
31) Franklin County
32) Henry County
33) City of Martinsville
34) Patrick County
35) Bland County
36) Wythe County
37) Carroll County
38) Tazewell County
39) Smyth County
40) Grayson County
41) Buchanan County
42) Russell County
43) Washington County
44) City of Bristol
45) Dickenson County
46) Wise County
47) Scott County
48) Lee County
(CODE - N/A = Marker No Longer Present)
Near this place, Ewell, on June 15th, 1863, Confederate troops of General Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's Division attacked and routed General Robert Milroy's Union Army during its retreat from Winchester. The short, pre-dawn battle resulted in the capture of Milroy's wagon train and more than 2,300 Union prisoners. From here the Confederate Army advanced into Pennsylvania where it suffered defeat two weeks later at Gettysburg. (Route 11 at the intersection with Route 664.
Near this place, Ewell, on June 15th, 1863, captured wagon trains, cannon and several thousand men of Milroy's army, which had been driven from Winchester by Early. (Route 11, 4 miles north of Winchester). [N/A]
Near here the Confederate General Stephen D. Ramseur was attacked by Union General William W. Averell and pushed back toward Winchester, July 20th, 1864. (Route 11, .19 mile east of Route 661, outside Winchester).
Near here the Confederate General Ramseur was attacked by Averell and pushed back toward Winchester, July 20th, 1864. (Route 11, 2.75 miles north of Winchester, and .19 mile east of I-66). [N/A]
One mile east is the site of the Hackwood Estate House, built in 1777 by General John Smith. Documents reveal that the Hackwood House caught fire during the Third Battle of Winchester. Union troops used buildings on the site for a hospital, September 19, 1864. (Route 11, .19 miles east of Route 661.
One mile east is Hackwood Park House, built in 1777 by General John Smith. It was used by Union troops as a hospital, September 19th, 1864. (Route 11, 1.7 miles north of Winchester). [N/A]
The fort on the hilltop to the southwest, known as Star Fort, was taken by Colonel Schoonmaker of General Philip Sheridan's army in the battle of September 19th, 1864. (Route 11, .8 mile north of Winchester).
Just to the east, a redoubt known at Fort Collier was built by Joseph E. Johnston in 1861. Early's left rested here during the Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864. ( Route 11, .1 mile south of Route 764).
Just to the south was built by Joseph E. Johnston, 1861. Early's left rested here, Third Battle of Winchester, September 19, 1864. ( Route 11, .14 mile north of Winchester, and .1 mile south of Route 764). [N/A]
On May 24th, 1862, Confederate forces under Major General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson pursued Major General Nathaniel Banks' Union Army from Strasburg to Winchester. Banks made a stand south of Winchester, posting one of two infantry brigades on Bower's Hill, now known as "Williamsburg Heights," and the other here in the plain below. In attacks the following day, Jackson routed the Union Army and drove it through the town towards Harper's Ferry. ( Route 11, south of Winchester, at .1 mile south of Handley Blvd.).
On the morning of May 25th, 1862, New England troops in Bank's army held this position, facing Jackson, who was advancing from the south. (Route 11, generally south of Winchester). [N/A]
Here Stonewall Jackson, in the early morning of May 25th, 1862, halted his advance guard and observed the Union position. (Route 11, .6 mile south of Winchester).
On June 14th, 1863, Jubal A. Early moved west from this point to attack federal fortifications west of Winchester. (Route 11, .18 mile south of Route 37, south of Winchester).
Here Ewell, on June 14th, 1863, detached Early to move around Milroy's flank and attack the works west of Winchester. (Route 11, .6 mile south of Winchester). [N/A]
Here General Jubal A. Early, C.S.A., detached to attack the rear of Milroy, holding Winchester, crossed this road and moved eastward in the afternoon of June 15th, 1863. (Route 50, 2.5 miles west of Winchester).
On this hill, Sheridan facing west, took his final position, September 19th, 1864. Early held position a half mile to the west. At 4 P.M. Sheridan, massing his cavalry and infantry, advanced on Early, whose line was broken by the assault. (Route 50, at the entrance into Winchester). [N/A] Click here to go to an AWESOME WEBSITE!
Here Jubal Early, facing east, received the attack of Sheridan's Army, at noon on September 19th, 1864. Early repulsed the attack and countercharged, breaking the Union line. Only Upton's prompt action in changing front saved the Unionists from disaster. At 3 P.M., Sheridan made a second attack, driving Early back to Winchester. (Route 522, at the east entrance of Winchester). [N/A]
Here Confederate forces under General Jubal A. Early, facing east, received the attack of Sheridan's Army, at noon on September 19th, 1864. Early repulsed the attack and countercharged, breaking the Union line. Only prompt action by General Emory Upton in changing front saved the Union forces from disaster. At 3 P.M., Sheridan made a second attack, driving Early back to Winchester. (Route 7, at the intersection with Route 656). Click here to GO THERE NOW!
On a hill, approximately one-half mile to the west, Philip H. Sheridan established his final position on September 19th, 1864. General Jubal A. Early held the ground one-half mile further to the west. At 4 p.m., Sheridan advanced with massed cavalry and infantry and broke Early's line. (Route 7, .41 mile east of Route 716). Click here to GO THERE NOW!
Near here Early, facing east, took his last position on September 19th, 1864. About sundown he was attacked and driven from it, retreating south. Presidents Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley served in this engagement on the Union side. (Route 522 at the National Cemetery, Winchester).
The fort on the hilltop to the north is one of a chain of defenses commanding the crossings of the Opequon. It was constructed by Union General Milroy in 1863. (Route 522, 4 miles south of Winchester).
On the hill to the west, Stonewall Jackson, late in the afternoon of March 23rd, 1862, attacked the Union forces under Shields holding Winchester. After a fierce action, Jackson, who was greatly outnumbered, withdrew southward, leaving his dead on the field. They were buried the next day by the citizens of Winchester. (Route 11, 5.3 miles north of Stephens City).
Here Confederate General Jubal A. Early, just returned from his raid to Washington, attacked a pursuing force under Crook and drove it back, July 24th, 1864. (Route 11, 1 mile north of Kernstown).
The main body of Stonewall Jackson's army halted here to rest in the early morning of May 25th, 1862. (Route 11, 3.2 miles north of Stephens City).
General David Hunter ordered the burning of this town, on May 30th, 1864, but Major Stearns, First New York Cavalry, prevented it. (Route 11, .16 mile south of Route T1017).
General David Hunter ordered the burning of this town, on May 30th, 1864, but Major Stearns, First New York Cavalry, prevented it. (Route 11, middle center of town, Stephens City). [N/A]
This knoll marks the position of the Union Army when Sheridan rejoined it at 10:30 A.M., October 19th, 1864, in the battle of Cedar Creek. His arrival, with Wright's efforts, checked the Union retreat. (Route 11, 3.2 miles south of Stephens City).
Near this point General Early, on the morning of October 19th, 1864, stopped his advance, and from this position, he was driven by Sheridan in the afternoon. (Route 11, .2 mile north of Middletown).
Here Stonewall Jackson, on May 24th, 1862, attacked Banks, retreating from Strasburg, and forced him to divide his army. (Route 11, at Middletown).
On the highest mountain top to the southeast is the grave of an unknown soldier. The mountain top was used as a signal station by both armies, 1861 to 1865. (Route 11, 1 mile south of Middletown).
Here the Union Army lay in an entrenched camp, October 19th, 1864. Crook was in the valley to the east; the Nineteenth Corps on the hillside facing south. At dawn the Confederates attacked from the east and south, capturing the camp and driving the Unionists northward two miles and a half. Wright finally halted the retreat. (Route 11, 1.3 miles south of Middletown).
These trenches were constructed by Union General Philip Sheridan in the autumn of 1864 while campaigning against Jubal A. Early. (Route 11, .8 mile north of Strasburg).
The breaking of this bridge in the evening of October 19th, 1864, permitted Sheridan to retake most of the material captured in the morning by Early. (Route 11, at Strasburg).
The earthworks on the hilltop to the southwest were constructed by General Banks in the campaign of 1862. (Route 11, at Strasburg).
Early took position here after the battle of Winchester, and here he was attacked by Sheridan, September 22nd, 1864, and forced to retire. (Route 11, 1.9 miles south of Strasburg.) [N/A]
Here Jubal A. Early's Adjutant General, A.S. Pendleton, while attempting to check Sheridan's attack, was mortally wounded, September 22nd, 1864. (Route 11, 3.1 miles south of Strasburg).
Here Early's Cavalry under Rosser and Lomax was driven back by Sheridan's Cavalry under Torbert, October 9th, 1864. (Route 11, .1 mile south of Tom's Brook).
Near this point the First Virginia Cavalry and the First New York Cavalry fought an engagement, November 17th, 1863. (Route 11, 1 mile south of Mount Jackson). [N/A]
Rude's Hill was reached by two divisions of Sheridan's Union Cavalry following the Confederate General Jubal A. Early, on November 22nd, 1864. Early promptly took position on the hill to oppose them. The cavalry, charging across the flats, were repulsed in a sharp action and fell back northward. (Route 11, 3.7 miles north of New Market).
On the hills to the north took place the battle of New Market, May 15th, 1864. The Union Army, under General Franz Sigel, faced southwest. John C. Breckinridge, once the Vice President of the United States, commanded the Confederates. General Scott Shipp commanded the Cadet Corps of the Virginia Military Institute, which distinguished itself, capturing a battery. The battle ended in Sigel's retreat northward. (Route 11, .6 mile north of New Market).
Here Lee's Army camped on the way to Gettysburg. Near here many engagements occurred, 1862 to 1864. (Route 340, at the north entrance of Berryville). [N/A]
Here Mosby attacked Sheridan's supply train, August 13, 1864, capturing 600 horses and mules and 200 prisoners. (Route 340, 1 mile north of Berryville). [N/A]
Lee and Longstreet, on their way to Gettysburg, camped here, June 18th to 19th, 1863. (Route 340, 1 mile north of Berryville). [N/A]
Near here R.H. Anderson, on his march to join Lee, then hard pressed at Petersburg, met Crook's Army of West Virginia. Anderson attacked, driving Crook back on Sheridan's main army, September 4th, 1864. (Route 7, .7 mile west of Berryville). [N/A]
Near here General Early, in July, 1864, returning from his Washington raid, was attacked by Crook, who forced a passage of the Shenandoah. Early, counterattacking, drove the Unionists back across the river. Rutherford B. Hayes, later President of the United States, commanded a brigade of Union troops. (Route 7, 4.5 miles east of Berryville). [N/A]
Early, while passing through this gap on his return from his Washington raid, was attacked by Crook's Cavalry, July 16th, 1864. Crook destroyed a few wagons. Early captured a cannon. (Route 7, 7.7 miles east of Berryville).
The town was laid out in 1798 on land of Benjamin Berry and was first known as Battletown. Here at "Audley" lived Nellie Custis, Washington's adopted daughter. Here at "Soldier's Rest" lived General Daniel Morgan, who built "Saratoga." Here Lee's Army camped on the way to Gettysburg. Near here many engagements occurred, 1862 to 1864. (Route 7, at the east entrance of Berryville). [N/A]
Here Lee's Army camped on the way to Gettysburg. Near here many engagements occurred, 1862 to 1864. (Route 7, at the west entrance of Berryville). [N/A]
Here Lee's Army camped on the way to Gettysburg. Near here many engagements occurred, 1862 to 1864. (Route 12, at the south entrance of Berryville). [N/A]
Three miles north in July 1864, General Jubal Early's Army, returning from his raid on Washington, was attacked by Federal units which forced a passage of the river. On July 18th, Colonel Joseph Thoburn led his troops against the Confederates but was driven back across the river. Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the United States, commanded a Federal brigade in the action. (Route 7, at intersection with Route 603). [N/A]
Built in 1782 by General Daniel Morgan and named for the battle of Saratoga, 1777. Hessian prisoners did the construction work. Confederate General Robert E. Lee had his headquarters here in June, 1863, on the way to Gettysburg. (Route 50, at the entrance to Boyce). [N/A]
The house was completed about 1792 by Nathaniel Burwell. Edmund Randolph, Governor of Virginia and Secretary of State, died here. General Stonewall Jackson had his headquarters here, October, 1862. (Route 255, just north of Millwood).
On the hilltop to the south stood an important signal station used by both armies, 1861 to 1865. (Route 50, .7 mile west of Paris).
This road, along which many of his skirmishes took place, is named for Colonel John Singleton Mosby, commander of the 43rd Battalion of the Confederate Partisan Rangers. Their activities in this area helped keep the Confederate cause alive in Northern Virginia toward the end of the Civil War. (Route 50, 3 miles west of Paris).
Stonewall Jackson, moving against Banks, captured this town from a Union force under Colonel Kenly, May 23rd, 1862. (Route 340, at Front Royal).
Near this spot several of Mosby's men were executed by order of General Custer, September 23rd, 1864. On the following November 6th, Colonel Mosby, in retaliation, ordered the execution of an equal number of Custer's men near Berryville. (Route 340, .5 mile north of Front Royal).
General Fitz Lee's Cavalry, supported by a brigade of Kershaw's infantry, detached from Anderson's Corps at Front Royal, near here attacked Merritt of Sheridan's Cavalry, August 16th, 1864. Merritt, on being reinforced, drove the Confederates back across the river. He then withdrew towards Charlestown. (Route 340, .2 mile north of Riverton). [N/A]
The first Maryland Regiment, U.S.A., was a part of the force holding this town when it was attacked by Stonewall Jackson, May 23rd, 1862. With Jackson was the First Maryland Regiment, C.S.A. The two regiments were arrayed against each other. (Route 340, at Front Royal).
Near here Stonewall Jackson was met by the spy, Belle Boyd, and informed of the position of the Union troops at Front Royal, May 24th, 1862. Jackson was advancing northward, attempting to get between Banks' Army and Winchester. (Route 340, 3 miles southwest of Front Royal).
Four miles west, Thomas Lincoln, father of the President, was born about 1778. He was taken to Kentucky by his father about 1781. Beside the road here was Lincoln Inn, long kept by a member of the family. (Route 11, at Lacey Spring).
Here, at Lacey's Spring, Rosser's Confederate Cavalry attacked Custer's camp, December 20, 1864. Rosser and Custer (of Indian fame) had been roommates at West Point. (Route 11, 7.5 miles north of Harrisonburg).
A mile and a half east of this point, Turner Ashby, Stonewall Jackson's Cavalry Commander, was killed, June 6th, 1862, while opposing Fremont's advance. (Route 11, 1.5 miles south of Harrisonburg).
Three miles south, on Mill Creek, Jackson's rearguard, under Ewell, was attacked by Fremont, June 8th, 1862. Trimble, of Ewell's command, counterattacked, driving the Unionists back. Jackson, with the rest of his army, was near Port Republic awaiting the advance of Shields up the east bank of the Shenandoah River. (Route 33, 5 miles east of Harrisonburg).
Here was fought the engagement of Mount Crawford, March 1st, 1865, in Sheridan's last raid. (Route 11, .3 mile south of Mount Crawford).
The cross road here roughly divides the Conferate and Union lines in the battle of June 9th, 1862. Jackson attacked Shields, coming southward to join Fremont, but was repulsed. Reinforced by Ewell, Jackson attacked again and drove Shields from the field. At the same time he burned the bridge at Port Republic, preventing Fremont from coming to Shields' aid. (Route 340, 3 miles north of Grottoes).
Thomas Lincoln, the father of the President, was born just west of here in 1778. He was a grandson of John Lincoln who settled here about 1767, and whose house stood to the east. The Lincoln family graveyard is nearby. (Route 42, 2.5 miles north of Edom). [N/A]
Here Thomas Harrison and wife deeded land for the Rockingham County public buildings, August 5th, 1779. The same act established both Louisville, KY., and Harrisonburg, May, 1780. Named for its founder, the town was also known as Rocktown. It was incorporated in 1849. In its vicinity battles were fought in 1862 and 1864. The present Courthouse was built in 1897. Harrisonburg became a city in 1916. (Route 11, at Harrisonburg).
Here Stonewall Jackson, retreating up the Valley before the converging columns of Fremont and Shields, turned at bay, June, 1862. A mile southeast Jackson's Cavalry Commander, Turner Ashby, was killed, June 6th. At Cross Keys, six miles southeast, Ewell of Jackson's Army defeated Fremont, June 8th. Near Port Republic, ten miles southeast, Jackson defeated Shields, June 9th. This was the end of Jackson's Valley Campaign. (Route 11, at Harrisonburg).
Robertson, shielding Stonewall Jackson's rear, fought an engagement here with Union cavalry, June 30th, 1862. (Route 211, at Luray) [N/A]
This was the first southern branch of the "Triple Forks of Shenandoah" congregation, which called John Craig as pastor in 1741. A church was completed here about 1748; two other buildings have succeeded it. Beginning in 1777, James Waddel, the noted blind preacher, was supply for some years. R.L. Dabney of Stonewall Jackson's staff, was minister here, 1847 to 1852. (Route 608, 1.3 miles south of Fishersville).
Sheridan attacked Early on the ridge west of this city, driving him from his position and capturing many of his men, March 2nd, 1865. This was the last important battle in northern Virginia. (Route 250, at the western entrance of Waynesboro). [N/A]
Five miles east is Jarman's Gap, formerly known as Woods' Gap. Through this pass Michael Woods, his three sons, and three sons in law (Andrew, Peter, William Wallace), coming from Pennsylvania via Shenandoah Valley, crossed into Albemarle County in 1734; pioneers in settling this section. In 1780 to 1781 British prisoners taken at Saratoga went through the gap en route to Winchester. In June, 1862 part of Stonewall Jackson's Confederate army, moving to join Lee at Richmond, crossed the mountain here. (Route 340, 1.2 miles north of Waynesboro).
Known originally as Augusta Parish Church, it was founded in 1746 as the County Parish. The Virginia General Assembly met here in June 1781 to avoid capture by British Raiders. The present church was erected in 1855 and was used by the Virginia Theological Seminary during the War Between the States. The first Bishop of Virginia, James Madison, was a member of the church. (Located in the city of Staunton at 214 W. Beverley Street).
Chartered on January 13th, 1844 as the Virginia Female Institute, Stuart Hall is Virginia's oldest college preparatory school for girls. The Rev. Dr. Richard H. Philips headed the school from 1848 until 1880. Flora Cooke Stuart, "Mrs. General"J.E.B. Stuart, for whom the school was renamed in 1907, was principal from 1880 until 1899. Two of General Robert E. Lee's daughters attended Stuart Hall, and Lee served as president of the school's board of visitors from 1865 until 1870. (Located in the city of Staunton at the intersection of W. Frederick and St. Clair Streets).
Five miles south near the "Thoroughfare Gap" was the early boyhood home of Colonel John Singleton Mosby (1833 to 1916), famous Confederate Ranger. He attended the school near Murrell's Shop, east of Elmington. (Route 6, 3 miles north of Woods Mill). [N/A]
This earthwork was made by the Confederate General Edward Johnson about April 1st, 1862. He withdrew from it to occupy Shenandoah Mountain near Staunton, where he prepared to resist invasion from the west. (Route 250, 1 mile east of McDowell). [N/A]
Stonewall Jackson, to prevent a junction of Fremont and Banks, took position on the hills just to the south and beat off the attacks of Fremont's advance under Milroy, May 8th, 1862. Milroy retreated that night. (Route 250, 1 mile east of McDowell).
Nearby is the site of Terrill Hill, home of the Terrill brothers of Bath County. Brigadier General William R. Terrill, a graduate of West Point, commanded a Union brigade and was killed in the battle of Perryville, Kentucky, October 8th, 1862. His brother, Brigadier General James B. Terrill, a graduate of the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), served with General A.P. Hill's 13th Regiment, Virginia Infantry, and died in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 31st, 1864. Legends says their father erected a monument to his sons with the inscription "God alone knows which was right." (Route 39, at the intersection with Route 220).
Home of Colonel John Bowyer, an officer in the Revolutionary War, and of General E.F. Paxton, C.S.A., the Commander of the Stonewall Brigade, killed at Chancellorsville, May 3rd, 1863. (Route 251, .6 mile north of Lexington).
In a cabin on the hilltop to the east Sam Houston was born, March 2nd, 1793. As commander in chief of the Texas Army, he won the battle of San Jacinto, which secured Texan independence, April 21, 1836. He was President of Texas, 1836 to 1838, 1841 to 1844; United States Senator, 1846 to 1859; Governor, 1860 to 1861. He died, July, 1863. (Route 11, 5.3 miles north of Lexington).
A state military, engineering and arts college, founded in 1839. Graduates of it have taken a prominent part in every war since the Mexican War, 2,000 of them serving in the World War. The cadets fought as a corps at New Market in 1864. Among the members of the faculty were Stonewall Jackson and the noted scientists, Matthew F. Maury and John M. Brooke. (Route 11, at Lexington).
Founded 1749, as Augusta Academy, near Greenville; reestablished at Timber Ridge, May, 1776, as Liberty Hall Academy; moved to Lexington and chartered as a college, 1782; endowed by George Washington, 1796, and named for him. Under presidency, 1865 to 1870, of Robert E. Lee (buried in the University Chapel), whose name after death was incorporated in the official title. (Route 11, at Lexington).
The oldest congregation in the Fincastle Presbytery, the Falling Spring Presbyterian Church, was organized before 1748. The Hanover Presbytery met here in October, 1780. The present Gothic Revival Church was constructed of slave made brick during the Civil War. At the time of its dedication in April, 1864, General Thomas L. Rosser's Cavalry Brigade was camped here. The first burial in the present cemetery was that of John Grigsby of Fruit Hill (1720 to 1794). Erected by the National Grigsby Family Society, 1981. (Route 11, 7 miles south of Lexington).
Here was Moomaw's Landing on the North River Canal. In May 1863 the Packet Marshall passed here bearing the body of Gen. Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson to Lexington. Mrs. Robert E. Lee used the canal in 1865 to join her husband at Washington College (now Washington & Lee University) in Lexington. (Route 60, at the western entrance of Buena Vista).
This house was purchased late in 1858 by Thomas Jonathan Jackson, then of the V.M.I. faculty. He and his wife lived here, in the only home he ever owned, from early 1859 to April, 1861, when he entered the service of the Confederacy. (Located in the city of Lexington, at the corner of Washington and Main Streets). [N/A]
The nation's first state military college, VMI was founded in 1839 on the concept of the citizen-soldier. The Corps of Cadet fought as a unit in the 1864 Battle of New Market. Confederate General "Stonewall" Jackson and oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury were among its faculty. George C. Marshall, a 1901 graduate, served as Army Chief of Staff in World War II, and later as Secretary of State, devising the Marshall plan to rebuild Europe. He was awared the Nobel Peace Prize. (Located at Letcher Avenue, at the entrance to VMI, .15 mile west of Route 11.
One mile southeast is the state colony for epileptics and the feebleminded, chartered by the General Assembly, February 20th, 1906, opened to patients in May, 1911. In its grounds are earthworks erected in June, 1864, to defend Lynchburg against Philip H. Sheridan's advance from the east. Sheridan, defeated by Wade Hampton at Trevillians, did not reach here. (Route 29, 1 mile north of Lynchburg). [N/A]
Half a mile southeast, on Madison Heights, are two large earthworks forming part of the Confederate defense system. (Route 29, 1 mile north of Lynchburg). [N/A]
About 800 yards east, on June 11th, 1864, the Botetourt Battery, C.S.A., prevented Federal raiders from burning the Orange and Alexandria Railroad Bridge, thus enabling General Jubal A. Early to reach Lynchburg in time to save it from capture by General David Hunter. (Route 29, south of the Tye River Bridge).
This furnace was built in 1827 by Ironmasters John Jordan and John Irvine and was named for their wives. During the Civil War, iron produced here was used in the manufacture of Confederate Munitions. (Route 60, at Longdale).
There are no Civil War Historical Road Markers located in the city of Covington.
The town was established 1811 and named for Colonel John Buchanan, pioneer and soldier. It was incorporated in 1833. Its importance consisted in its being the western terminus of the James River and Kanawha Canal, which reached the town in 1851. Hunter passed here moving to Lynchburg, June, 1864. The town was reincorporated in 1892. (Route 11, at Buchanan).
The grove to the northwest is Sandusky, built by Charles Johnston, in 1797 and named for the city in Ohio, then a trading post, where Johnston stayed after escaping from the Indians. Here the Union General David Hunter had his headquarters, June 17th to 18th, 1864. Presidents Rutherford B. Hayes and William McKinley, then officers under Hunter, roomed together in this houses. (At Lynchburg, at Fort Avenue on the Quaker Parkway).
The earthwork on the hilltop two hundred yards to the east was thrown up as a part of the system of defenses for Lynchburg, 1861 to 1865. The city was an important supply base and railroad center. (Route 501, at the east entrance to the city of Lynchburg).
The redoubt is part of the outer Lynchburg defenses, June, 1864. General Jubal Early arrived with the Second Corps of Robert E. Lee's Army in the afternoon of June 17th. The redoubt (erected by Early) was occupied by part of Stephen D. Ramseur's and John Brown Gordon's Divisions. The Union General David Hunter attacked in the afternoon of June 18th. Repulsed, he began to retreat in the night of June 18th and 19th, followed by Early. (At Lynchburg, along Fort Avenue and near the Jubal Early Monument).
The fort on the hill here was constructed by General Jubal Anderson Early, C.S.A., to protect the approach to Lynchburg from the west. Union Cavalry skirmished with the Confederates along the road immediately west of the fort. The Unionists, driven back by General John McCausland, were unable to enter the city from this direction. (At Lynchburg, along Langhorne Road, west of Clifton Street).
Here ran the inner line of Lynchburg defenses thrown up by General Daniel Henry (D.H.) Hill in June, 1864. General John C. Breckinridge, confronting General David Hunter in the Shenandoah Valley, made a forced march to forestall Hunter. Hill constructed a shallow line of trenches, occupied by Breckinridge, and hospital convalescents and home guards. It became a reserve line when General Early arrived. (At Lynchburg, along Twelfth Street, between Floyd and Fillmore Streets).
A line of shallow entrenchments extended across Bedford Avenue near this spot, making connection with other trenches crossing the present Southern Railroad. These works protected Lynchburg from entrance by the Lexington Turnpike (now the Hollins Mill Road). They were occupied by General Breckinridge's troops. (At Lynchburg, at the corner of Bedford Avenue and Holly Street).
On the crest of the hill just to the south was a redoubt forming part of the defensess thrown up by General D.H. Hill, June, 1864. These works were held by General John Daniel Imboden's Cavalry. A military road was constructed to conduct this point with Fort McCausland. Signs of this road may still be seen in old Rivermont Park. (At Lynchburg, at the intersection of Langhorne Road with Rivermont Avenue).
At this point the Second Virginia Cavalry was mustered into service, May 10th, 1861. At the same place the remnant of this regiment was disbanded, April 10th, 1865, completing a service of four years lacking one month. The Regiment participated in many campaigns and engagements. (At Lynchburg, between Monsview Drive and Rivermont Avenue).
A line of shallow entrenchments extended from near this point along the crest of the hill to the east. These works were occupied by the Cadets of the Virginia Military Institute (V.M.I.), who had marched here with Major General John Cabell Breckinridge, C.S.A., after the Institute at Lexington was burned by General David Hunter, U.S.A. (At Lynchburg, at the corner of Ninth and Polk Streets).
Here, facing west, ran the inner defenses of the city, located by General D.H. Hill. They were constructed by convalescents and home guards. General Early, after an inspection of the system, moved most of the men to the outer works well to the westward. (At Lynchburg, between the Ninth and Polk Streets).
Near here ran the line of inner defenses located by General D.H. Hill, June, 1864. He had been sent from Petersburg by General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, C.S.A., to assist Major General John Cabell Breckinridge, then in command. On Lieutenant General Jubal Anderson Early's arrival troops were moved to the outer works. (At Lynchburg, between Floyd and Wise Streets).
Trains began running on the first railroad, the Virginia and Tennessee, in 1852. Lynchburg was a main military supply center, 1862 to 1865. Here the Confederates under General Early defeated the Union General Hunter, June 18th, 1864. In 1893 Randolph Macon Woman's College opened; in 1903, Lynchburg College. In 1920 the council manager form of government was adopted. (At Lynchburg, at the intersection of Ninth and Church Streets).
Born at 416 Main Street, he moved to Richmond at an early age and became a distinguished editor and historian. Editor of the Richmond News Leader, 1915 to 1959; Rector and President of The Board of Trustees, the University of Richmond, 1934 to 1949; Professor of Journalism, Columbia University, 1935 to 1941; and Author of Pulitzer Prize biographies of both Robert E. Lee and George Washington, as well as other standard historical works. (At Lynchburg, at the south end of the Rivermont Bridge).
Near here General David Hunter, U.S.A., on his retreat from Lynchburg, halted for the night of June 18, 1864. He resumed his retreat early in the morning of June 19th. (Route 460, 3 miles west of Bedford).
Here is the home of John Goode, political leader, born 1829, died 1909. Goode was a member of the Secession Convention of 1861; of the Confederate Congress and of the United States Congress; Solicitor General of the United States; President of the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1901. (Route 460, at Bedford).
This place became the county seat of Bedford when it was moved from New London in 1782. First called Liberty (incorporated in 1839), the town changed its name to Bedford City in 1890 and to Bedford in 1912. A third courthouse, built in 1834, was replaced by the present building in 1930. The Union General David Hunter, with his army, passed here in June, 1864, on his way to Lynchburg, and repassed here on his retreat. (Route 460, at Bedford).
This road was followed by General David Hunter, U.S.A. when he crossed the Blue Ridge at the Peaks of Otter and came to Bedford en route to Lynchburg, June 16, 1864. (Route 460, at Bedford).
This place became the county seat when Craig County was formed in 1851. The courthouse was built in 1851 and remodeled in 1935. General Averell passed through New Castle in his raid of December, 1863, and General Hunter in June, 1864. The town was incorporated in 1890. (Route 311, at New Castle).
On June 30th, 1864 General Hunter, retreating from defeat at Lynchburg by General Jubal A. Early, met Confederate forces led by General John McClausland. After losing some of his artillery here, Hunter continued his withdrawal northwest through New Castle to Lewisburg. (Intersection of Routes 311 and 116, north of Salem).
At Salem is a liberal arts institution for men and women. Founded in Augusta County in 1842 as Virginia Institute, it was chartered in 1845 as Virginia Collegiate Institute; moved to Salem in 1847; chartered as Roanoke College in 1853, and was in operation throughout 1861 to 1865. The students formed a company in the Confederate Army, Virginia Reserves, September 1st, 1864. (Route 11, .2 mile west of Salem).
In June, 1864, General David Hunter, U.S.A., passed here retreating from Lynchburg. In 1874 Big Lick was incorporated. In 1881, with the junction of the new Shenandoah Valley Railroad with the Norfolk & Western, rapid growth began. In 1882 the name was changed to Roanoke; in 1884 it was incorporated as a city. In 1909 the Virginian Railroad operated its first train. In recent years, Roanoke became the third city of Virginia. (located in Roanoke, at the intersection of South Jefferson and East Bullit Streets).
Here at East Hill Cemetery is buried Sgt. James Walton (1838-1875). A gunner in Capt. Charles B. Griffin's Battery (Salem Flying Artillery), Walton fired one of the last artillery shots by Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House. Stationed in the yard of the George Peers house at the northeastern end of the village, Griffin's battery fired at Union cavalry until ordered to stop. Walton had just loaded powder into a gun when the order arrived; he discharged the cannon to clear it and saved the primer as a souvenir. (Located in Salem, at Main Street, at the entrance to East Hill Cemetery).
The town was laid out in 1806 when Giles County was formed, and named for Captain George Pearis, early settler. Established in 1808, it was first incorporated in 1835, and reincorporated in 1914. Here, in May 1862, Union troops under Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes were defeated by Confederates under General Henry Heth. The present courthouse was erected in 1836. (Route 460, at Pearisburg).
Named for the narrows in New River. The place was occupied by Confederate troops under French and Jackson in May, 1864. Combining with McClausland, they forced the Union General Crook to evacuate Blacksburg. Crook passed here on his way to West Virginia. The Norfolk and Western Railroad came in 1884; the Virginian in 1910. The town was incorporated in 1904. (Route 460, at Narrows).
Christianburg, originally known as "Hans' Meadows," was established in 1792 and named for Colonel William Christian, noted Colonial and Revolutionary Indian fighter. It became an important place on the route to the West. On May 10th, 1864, Averell raided the town on an expedition into southwest Virginia. On April 5th, Stoneman raided it while destroying railroads. (Route 11, .6 mile east of Christianburg).
Near here stood Montgomery White Sulphur Springs, popular resort area of 19th century America. During the Civil War the resort was converted into a military hospital staffed by Catholic nuns. Several hundred victims of smallpox including nurses and soldiers are buried nearby. The Southern Historical Society was reorganized here in August, 1873, when Jefferson Davis delivered the principal address. (Interstate 81, .75 miles north of Exit 38 at the Rest Area, in the northbound land).
It originated as a railroad town in 1856 and was known as Central. In 1862 to 1865 this section was in the range of Union raids; Confederates burned the bridge at Ingles Ferry to retard raiders. Incorporated in 1887 as a town, the place was incorporated as a city in 1892 and named Radford, for Dr. John B. Radford, prominent citizen. Radford State Teachers College was established here, 1913. (Route 11, at Radford).
There are no Civil War Historical Road Markers located in Floyd County.
Five miles north, at Cloyd's Mountain, General George Crook, raiding south to destroy the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad (Norfolk & Western), met and repulsed General A.G. Jenkins in a fierce action, May 9th, 1864. Jenkins was mortally wounded. (Route 100, at Dublin). [N/A]
In April, 1864 Grant ordered Brigadier General George Crook to cut the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad (Norfolk & Western) in Southwest Virginia. Near Cloyd's Mountain, five miles north of Dublin, on May 9th, Crook battled Confederate defenders commanded by Brigadier General Albert G. Jenkins. Attacking Jenkin's right flank, Crook drove him from his earthworks, after a sharp engagement with heavy casualties on both sides. Jenkins was mortally wounded and lost 538 of 2,400 men (23 percent). Crook severed the railroad at Dublin and withdrew on May 11th. (Route 100, 1.4 miles north of Route 627).
Just to the west took place the battle of Cloyd's Mountain, May 9th, 1864. The Union General Crook, raiding to destroy the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad (N. & W.), met and repulsed General A.G. Jenkins, who was mortally wounded. (Route 100, 5 miles north of Dublin).
This place was established as the county seat when Franklin County was formed. The first court was held in March, 1786. The first (log) Courthouse was replaced in 1831. In 1836 the town consisted of 30 dwellings and a number of business houses. General Jubal Anderson Early, C.S.A., practiced law here. The town was incorporated in 1873. The present courthouse ws built in 1909. (Route 220, at Rocky Mount).
Near this place, on land occupied since the 1780's by the Early family, Confederate Jubal Early was born in 1816. The General practiced law in Franklin County and served in the Mexican War before the Civil War. Early fought in more battles than any other Confederate General and came closest to capturing Washington, D.C. Because of his undying devotion to the Southern Cause, he became known as "The Unreconstructed Rebel." ( Route 116, 5.2 miles north of Route 122).
There are no Civil War Historical Road Markers located in Henry County.
There are no Civil War Historical Road Markers located in the city of Martinsville.
A short distance west is the site of the home of Archibald Stuart, Jr., a statesman of a century ago. There was born, February 6th, 1833, his son, James Ewell Brown (J.E.B.) Stuart, who became Major General commanding the Cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia, and whose fame is a part of the history of that army. Stuart closed his career by falling in the defense of Richmond, (at Yellow Tavern) May 11th, 1864. (Route 103, 4 miles south of Friends Mission).
This place, first known as Taylorsville for George Taylor, early settler, was established in 1792 after the formation of Patrick County. In 1849 it contained about fifty dwellings. The name was changed to Stuart in honor of General James Ewell Brown (J.E.B.) Stuart, C.S.A., who was born in the county. The courthouse was built in 1852 and remodeled in 1928. (Route 58, at Stuart).
The community center was first known as Crab Orchard. The place became the county seat of Bland County when it was formed in 1861 under the name of Seddon, which was later changed to that of the county. At Rock Gap a skirmish was fought in Crook's raid against the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, May, 1864. (Route 52, .35 mile south of the intersection with Route 98).
When Wythe County was formed, this place became the county seat under the name of Evansham. It was incorporated in 1839 as Wytheville. The old Wilderness Road to Cumberland Gap passed here. In July, 1863, Toland's Raiders captured the town. In May, 1864, Averell passed here on a raid; the town was again occupied by Union troops in December, 1864, and April, 1865. (Route Route 11, at Wytheville).
Home of Colonel R.E. Withers, Confederate Officer, Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, United States Senator and Consul at Hong Kong. (Route 11, located at the eastern entrance to Wytheville).
Over this pass, Union Cavalry under Colonel John T. Toland raided to Wytheville to destroy the Virginia and Tennessee Railway (Norfolk & Western), July, 1863. Mary Tynes, a girl of the neighborhood, rode ahead to warn the people. When the raiders reached Wytheville, they were repulsed by home guards and Toland was killed. (Route 52, located at the Bland and Wythe County line).
There are no Civil War Historical Road Markers located in Carroll County.
The town was laid out as the county seat in 1800, when Tazewell County was formed, on land given by William Peery and Samuel Ferguson. First known as Jeffersonville, the name was changed to Tazewell, for Senator Henry Tazewell. Averell was here in May, 1864, and the town was occupied in other raids. It was incorporated in 1866. (Business Route 19 at Tazewell).
To the north was "Rocky Dell," the home of Samuel Tynes. From here on July 17th, 1863, his daughter Molly rode across the mountains to Wytheville to warn the town of an attack by Federal forces under Colonel J.T. Toland. (Route 61, 3 miles east of Tazewell).
Here at dawn on July 20th, 1863, the Confederate Cavalry of Major Andrew J. May surprised a Union raiding party led by Lt. Colonel Freeman E. Franklin. Aroused from its bivouac in Brown's Meadow, where it was preparing to burn the Fall's Mill, the Union cavalry fled north toward Abb's Valley. Brigadier General John S. William's Confederate Cavalry struck the raiders as they withdrew up the Shenandoah Valley, compelling them to abandon captured livestock and contraband slaves. (Route 102 and Route 643).
Here, on December 17th and 18th, 1864, General Stoneman, raiding to Saltville, fought an engagement with John C. Breckinridge, Confederate Commander in southwest Virginia. (Route 11, at the eastern corporate limits of Marion).
The community center here was known as Royal Oak, home of Arthur Campbell, frontiersman. The place became the county seat when Smyth County was formed and was named for Francis Marion, Revolutionary hero. It was incorporated in 1832; the courthouse was built in 1834; the railroad came in 1856. A cavalry action was fought here, December 1864, in Stoneman's Raid. (Route 11, at Marion).
The place takes its name from the highway ford on the Holston River, which is seven miles west of Royal Oak. The land here belonged to General William Campbell, hero of King's Mountain, 1780. It descended to the wife of John M. Preston. The town originated as a railroad station. It was occupied in Stoneman's Raid of December, 1864. (Route 11, 2.9 miles east of Chilhowie).
The land, patented by Charles Campbell in 1753, passed to the wife of General Francis Preston. General William Russell began saltmaking here in 1788; Thomas Madison directed the work in 1790. William King greatly enlarged the works. In 1861 to 1864 the Confederate Government obtained salt here. In October, 1864, Stoneman destroyed the salt works. (Route 91, at Saltville).
This place became the county seat when Buchanan County was formed, in 1858, and was probably named for Felix Grundy of Tennessee, statesman. In October, 1864, the Union General Burbridge passed through Grundy on his raid to Saltville. The town was incorporated in 1876. (Route 83, at Grundy).
William King built salt works there in 1795. In October, 1864, Union troops, raiding Saltville, were driven off; but in December, 1864, the works were destroyed by General Stoneman. (Route 11, 4.1 miles west of Chilhowie).
First known as Wolf Hills, land was patented here by Dr. Thomas Walker in 1750. Black's Fort was built, 1776. The town of Abingdon was established in 1778 as the county seat of Washington County. A Courthouse, built about 1800, was replaced in 1850. In 1862 the church bells were melted for cannon. In Stoneman's Raid, December, 1864, the town was partly burned. A new Courthouse was built, 1869. (Route 11, at Abingdon).
The Sapling Grove tract (Bristol) was surveyed for John Tayloe, 1749. It was owned by Isaac Baker and Evan Shelby, who built a post about 1770. The Virginia tract was bought by John Goodson, whose son founded the town of Goodson, incorporated in 1856. In 1863 and 1865 it was raided by Unionists and partly burned. In 1890 it was named Bristol when incorporated as a city. (Route 11, at the northern corporate limits of the city of Bristol).
Christopher Gist, returning from the Ohio River, crossed this gap in 1751. James A. Garfield (afterward President) with Union troops forced this gap in March, 1862. In June, 1864, John Hunt Morgan, on his Kentucky raid, forced it from the Virginia side, capturing and destroying much property. (Route 23, 4 miles north of Pound). [N/A]
This town, one of the highest in Virginia, was built on land first owned by Pierre de Tarbeau, French nobleman. Originally known as Big Glades, it became Gladesville in 1856. A first Courthouse, built in 1858, was burned by Union troops. An action was fought here, July 7, 1863, between Confederate and Union raiders. The name was changed to Wise when the town was rechartered in 1928. (Business Route 23, located on Main Street at Wise).
Andrew Taylor Still, physician and founder of osteopathy, was born two miles southwest, near the Natural Bridge of Lee County, August 6th, 1828. Dr. Still served in the War between the States. He established the first American school of osteopathy in 1892 at Kirksville, Missouri. He died there, December 12th, 1917. (Route 58, located at the western entrance into Jonesville).
This town was established in 1794 as the county seat of Lee County and was named for Frederick Jones. Here on January 3rd, 1864, General William E. Jones, assisted by Colonel A.L. Pridemore, defeated a Union force, capturing the battalion. Union troops burned the Courthouse in 1864. The present Courthouse was erected in 1933. The town was incorporated in 1834, and reincorporated in 1901. (Route 58, at Jonesville).
This pass was long the gateway to the West. On April 13th, 1750, Dr. Thomas Walker reached the gap, which he named for the Duke of Cumberland, son of George II. A few years later Daniel Boone and numberless pioneers passed through it on the way to Kentucky. In August, 1863, Cumberland Gap was captured by a Union Army under General Ambrose E. Burnside. (Route 58, at the Cumberland Gap).
If you are aware of other Civil War historical road markers erected by local government or citizen groups that should be added to this list, please contact us at
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